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Useful Information For Land Surveyors And Civil Engineers. Get Benefits And Share With Others.
The post Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge appeared first on Surveying & Architects.
]]>The post Successful Civil Engineers appeared first on Surveying & Architects.
]]>Being the good & successful Civil Engineer is not so easy. u need to full some of important requirements to achieve this. In this article, I will share the top ten requirements to be a successful civil engineer.
The good civil engineer should have proper knowledge of the different tests of building materials. Some important tests are listed below.
Slump test, compression test, split tensile test, soundness and etc.
Core cutter test, compaction test, sand replacement test, triaxial test, consolidation test and etc.
Ductility test, softening point test, gravity test, penetration test and etc.
Various soil tests are conducted to determine the settlement and the stability of soils before starting construction. So as the civil engineer, u should have enough knowledge of these tests which are performed at the site.
Usages of the surveying instruments like the total station, theodolite and etc are also mandatory knowledge for the every civil engineer. These instruments are used for marking & measurements.
Every country has its standard safety specifications (eg: Is Code) for the construction-related works. All the new construction should be done by following all the rules & procedures mentioned in the standard codes. Otherwise, the chances of failure of the structure will be always high.
The Bar bending schedule is an essential chart for civil engineers. It provides the reinforcement calculation of the RC beam such as cutting length, type of the bending, the length of bending, etc.
Drawing and the design are the primary keys of an ongoing project. It provides all the required specifications of that project. Every site engineer should have the analyzing power of such drawings & designs.
Estimation & bills should be prepared by the civil engineer in a construction project.
The Quality control ensures the profit of the project by reducing the extra costs. So u must have a basic knowledge of the quality control.
Knowledge of the form-work, concreting, safety measures, etc is also a key aspect.
As the civil engineer, u must know how to deal with laborers on a site.
If you have all the above requirements we hope u will be the good and successful Civil Engineer. Best of luck.
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]]>The post What is The Contour Mapping appeared first on Surveying & Architects.
]]>The Contour are the lines joining the points of equal elevation on the surface of earth or we can say that the contour is a line in which the ground surface is intersected by the level surface obtained by joining points of the equal elevation.
The map on which contour lines are plotted are known as the contour map.
The Contour map gives an idea of the altitudes of the surface features as well as their relative positions in the plan serves the purpose of the plan as well as section.
The process of the tracing lines on the surface of the earth is called contouring.
The constant vertical distance or the difference in the level between 2 consecutive contours in the map is called contour interval.
The horizontal distance between any 2 consecutive contours is called as the horizontal equivalent.
The contour interval is unchanged or constant between the consecutive contours while the horizontal equivalent is the variable & depends upon the slope of the earth surface.
The line laying on the ground which maintains the constant inclination to the horizontal is known as contour gradient. It is measured out by an instrument is called Clinometer.
There are mainly 2 methods of locating contours.
1. Direct Method of the Contouring.
2. Indirect Method of the Contouring.
In this method, the contour to be plotted is actually traced on ground by locating the points of that elevation. The horizontal position of the points so located is then determined & plotted on the plan. The pegs of the different contours are coded so that 1 set cannot be mistaken for the other.
In this method the points located and the surveyed are not necessarily on the contour lines but the spot levels are taken at some selected points called as guide points & the levels of points are determined. The horizontal positions of these points are then determined and the points are plotted on the plan. Their positions are then plotted on the plan & the contours drawn by interpolation.
This method of the contouring is also known as contouring by spot levels. The indirect method is more convenient than the direct method & is suitable for the contouring large areas.
There are mainly 3 method of the contouring in indirect method.
This method is used for the surveying of the small to medium areas and for the less undulated land.
This method is the most suitable for the surveys of long narrow strip such as a road, railway or canal etc.
This method is the particularly useful for contouring small hilly areas where radial lines are drawn from the peak to cover the entire area.
Here the elevations are determined for the few selected key or controlling points. The contour lines are then drawn through interpolation.
There are lots of the uses of contour maps as the contour survey is carried out at the starting of the any engineering project such as a roadway, railway, canal, dam and building etc. Some of the major uses are as follows.
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]]>The post Types Of Curves In Surveying Work appeared first on Surveying & Architects.
]]>The Curves are generally the horizontal &/or vertical bends that are usually used on highways & the railways when it is necessary to change the alignment of the route. when 2 points are located at the diﬀerent levels, it becomes necessary to give the curve.
This curve usually helps to connect the points lying at the diﬀerent levels in such a way that the vehicles moving on that route could move with ease, safety & comfort. A proper alignment or the curve can provide smoother movement of the vehicles from 1 point to another, located at the diﬀerent levels.
A curve is introduced at the intersection of 2 straights to eﬀect the gradual change in the direction. This change in direction may be in the horizontal plane or a vertical plane. So curve is provided to the route according to its direction, i.e. either in the vertical plane or in a horizontal plane, respectively.
Curves in the surveying are classified into 2 main types. They are as follows.
The horizontal curve is provided where 2 straight lines intersect with each other in the horizontal plane. When a curve is given in the horizontal plane, it is known as a horizontal curve. A horizontal curves are further divided as follows:
The simple curve is a single arc of the circle, which is tangential to both the straight lines of route. There are a few elements of the simple circular curve discussed below.
The line of the tangent before the beginning of the curve is known as a back tangent.
The tangent line after finishing of the curve is known as the forward tangent.
The point where the back tangent & the forward tangent intersects, is known as the point of intersection.
The angle between the back & the forward tangent is known as intersection angle.
An the angle through which the forward tangent deflects is known as angle of deflection.
The point at the beginning of the curve, where the alignment changes the tangent into the curve, is known as point of the curvature.
The point at the end of the curve, where the curve changes into the tangent, is known as point of the tangency.
The distance between the point of the curvature & point of intersection is known as the tangent distance.
The total length of curve from the point of curvature to the point of intersection is known as the length of curve.
The chord joining the point of curvature & the point of tangency, is known as the long chord.
The chord between 2 successive pegs on the curve, is known as a normal chord.
The chord shorter than the normal chord is known as a sub-chord.
The distance between the midpoint of the curve & the midpoint of the long chord, is known as mid-ordinate.
The distance between the point of intersection & the midpoint of the curve, is the external distance.
The compound curve comprises 2 or more circular arcs of the diﬀerent radii with their centers of the curvature on the same side of the common tangent. It is where the cutting & filling of soil is to be avoided. Compound curves are necessary whenever the space restrictions rule out the signal circular curve & when there are property boundaries.
The curve consisting of 2 circular arcs of similar or diﬀerent sizes radii having their centers on opposite sides of the common tangent at the point of reverse curvature is known as a reverse curves reverse curve is also known as the serpentine curve or S-curve due to its shape. The Reverse curves are used to connect 2 parallel roads or railway lines. It is generally used when 2 lines intersect at a very small angle.
The Reverse curves are best suited for hilly terrains & the highways used for relatively low-speed vehicles. Reverse curves are not advisable to use on the highways & railways which are meant for high-speed traﬃc movement because of the following reasons.
1) – The sudden change in direction can be dangerous for the vehicles.
2) – The sudden change in the curvature & direction reduces the life of vehicles & also provides discomfort to the people traveling on that route.
3) – If the driver is the careless, it may cause the vehicle to overturn over the reverse curve.
It is the curve of varying radius. The value of the radius of this type of the curve varies from infinity to a certain fixed value. It provides the gradual change from the straight line to the circular curve & again from the circular curve to the straight line. It is usually provided on both ends of the circular curve. The transition curves are provided on the roads & railways to lessen the discomfort at the sudden change in the curvature at the junction of a straight line & a curve.
The transition curve has the following advantages.
1) – Transition curve reduces the probability of the overturning vehicles at the junction of the straight and the curve.
2) – It gives comfort to the passengers.
3) – It allows higher speeds for the vehicles at the curves.
4) – Transition curve reduces the wear & tear of the rail section, occurring due to unusual friction at the point of curve.
The combination of the simple circular curve & the transition curve, is known as a combined curve. Combined curves are mostly preferred in the highways and railways.
When transition curves are provided at both ends of the circular curve, the curve formed is known as a combined or the complete curve.
The Vertical curves are usually provided when the highway or a railway crosses a ridge or a valley. The Vertical curves are provided when there is a diﬀerence of the level between 2 points. So to make the movement easy between these points, the vertical curve is provided. It makes the transition of the vehicle smooth & comfortable.
There are 2 main types of vertical curves.
The vertical curve having its convexity in the upwards direction is known as the summit curve.
The Summit curves are usually provided in the following cases.
1) – When an upgrade is followed by the downgrade,
2) – When the steeper upgrade is followed by a milder upgrade, &
3) – When the milder downgrade is followed by a steeper upgrade.
The vertical curve having its convexity in the downwards direction or when it is the concave upwards is known as a valley curve. It is also known as sag curve.
The sag curve or a valley curve is usually formed in the following cases.
1) – When the downgrade is followed by an upgrade,
2) – When the steeper downgrade is followed by a milder upgrade, &
3) – When the milder upgrade is followed by a steeper upgrade.
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]]>The post How to calculate the Quantity of Earthwork in the Road appeared first on Surveying & Architects.
]]>In this Article u will learn step-by-step guidelines for measuring the QTY of earthwork (soil) in the Road, railway & the canal work with the help of mean area method.
For explanation, the solution is given in the following example.
Example ? Calculate the QTY of the earthwork for an embankment with length 120 m and width ten m at the top. Side slope is given as 2:1 & depths at each Thirty m distance are 0.4, 0.6, 1.4, 1.2 and 0.8 m.
The calculation is the done through a table. The table contains various heads like Road station, depth, center area, side area, total area, mean area, intervals and Qty.
The work of the road will start from Zero point. So, in the road station column in the table, the values will be given as 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 (as distance is given as thirty m).
In the depth column, provide the values as 0.4, 0.6, 1.4, 1.2 & 0.8 m.
To calculate the center area, the following formula will be used.
B x d = Breadth or width x Depth
After putting the values, we get the following result.
10 x 0.4 = fore meter
In this way the other values can be determined easily.
Sd^{2}, here S denotes slope & d denotes depth.
Two x 0.42 = 0.32 m^{2} (as sloe is given by 2:1)
In this way, the other values can be determined easily.
The Total area will be calculated with the following formula.
Bd + Sd^{2} = Center Area + Side area
To determine the mean area, 1st, sum up the first 2 rows of total area & then divide it with Two i.e. 4.32 + 6.72 /Two = 5.52 meter. In this way, other values can be calculated.
The value of intervals is given as Thirty meter.
Mean area x Intervals.
After putting the values, we get the following result.
5.52 x 30 = 165.6 m^{2
}
In this way, the other values can be calculated.
Total filling or embankment will be determined by summing up all the Qty & it will be 1389.6 m^{3
}
So, the total QTY of soils for filling or embankment of the road = 1389.6 m^{3.}
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]]>The post How to calculate the RL of temporary benchmark on the site appeared first on Surveying & Architects.
]]>In this Article I will Discuss about the topic of How to calculate the RL of temporary benchmark on the site.
Let us now go through the procedure of shifting And finding the RL of the temporary benchmark on the Construction site.
Full form.
BS = Backsight
FS = Foresight
R L = Reduced level
TBM = Temporary benchmark
HI = Height of instrument
While the reading procedure, observe the above given drawing (for each step) to understand the concept.
1 – We have to set the instrument at the station A. The location of the instrument station should be such that the staff held over the TBM – 1 and TBM – 2 should be visible.
2 – Note down the BS reading over the staff held over TBM – 1 and FS over the staff positioned over the TBM – Two.
3 – Shift the instrument position from the station A to station B. After leveling and setting the instrument, take BS reading over TBM – two and FS reading over the TBM – three.
In this process, the shaft held over the TBM – two should not be lifted or moved before observing FS and BS readings.
4 – If the RL of TBM – One is not known, consider it as 100.
Now,
HI at the station A = [RL of TBM-One + BS from station A]
RL of TBM – Two = [HI at station A – FS from station A]
Similarly,
HI at the station B = [RL of TBM-two + BS from the station B]
RL of TBM-three = [HI at station B – FS from the station B]
In this way, u can transfer the TBM to the desired locations on construction site.
The following readings were taken with the leveling instrument to transfer the TBM on the site.
0.695, 1.250, 1.675, & 0.470. The instrument is shifted after Second reading. The RL of the 1st reading taken over TBM-one is 100. Find the RL of the TBM-Two and TBM – three.
As u can observe in the above drawing, the instrument is shifted after the Second reading.
So, The 1st and 3rd readings BS 0.695 and 1.675.
Second and 4th readings FS 1.250 and 0.470.
= [RL of TBM-One + BS from the station A]
= [100 + 0.695]
= 100.695
= [HI at station A – FS from the station A]
= [ 100.695 – 1.250]
= 99.445
Similarly,
= [RL of TBM-two + BS from the station B]
= [99.445 + 1.675]
= 101.12
= [HI at station B – FS from the station B]
= [101.12 – 0.470]
= 100.65
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]]>The post Rise and fall method with Examples appeared first on Surveying & Architects.
]]>In This Article i will discuss About the topic of Rise and Fall Method with Complete Detail.
Rise & fall is the method of Land Surveying to solve the levelling to find out difference in elevation & elevation of 2 points. In this method
Like we need to calculate the difference in elevation of the staff of 2 points. The 2 stations points where the staff readings are taken, we know the RL of the ground of 1 station & we have to find the RL of another.
Back Sight is the first reading of a staff (levelling rod) which remains unchanged when the levelling apparatus is taken to another or a new point after the levelling instrument is set up & levelled on the first point. And simply it can be defined as the backward reading of previous station point. It is the taken on known reduced level or benchmark.
All the reading which is taken between back sight & the foresight is called inter-sight.
Foresight is a reading of the staff or levelling rod which is taken in the forward direction of leveling process or the staff reading which is to be determined & it is the last reading of the whole surveying process. It is considered as negative & deducted from Height of the Instrument to determine RL of the point.
Benchmark is considered as the fixed point of known elevation point through which is the reduced level of the other point is determined.
It is arbitrary or permanent reading through which the surveying works are done & calculation of the reduced level is done. For GTS surveys work, the Land surveyor uses an identified or permanent benchmark to calculate elevation of the points.
Determine rise or fall using.
B.S – I.S or I.S – F.S
Where,
If,
B.S-F.S=+ve (Rise) and B.S-F.S=-ve (Fall)
New R.L= Old R.L – fall = Old R.L + rise
∑B.S – ∑F.S = ∑Rise – ∑Fall = Last R.L – First R.L
Let us discuss this with few real calculations related to the Rise & Fall method.
The following staff readings were obtained during the leveling work with the instrument being shifted after the 4th, 7th & 10th. Readings: 2.305, 0.940, 0.865, 1.325, 2.905, 1.185, 1.205, 2.015, 1.365, 0.985 & 1.785. Find reduced levels of the remaining points if RL of the second turning point is 200.00
∑B.S –∑F.S = ∑Rise – ∑Fall = Last R.L – First R.L
= 7.225 – 4.315 =4.19 – 1.28 = 201.545 – 198.635
= 2.91 = 2.91 = 2.91
Hence checked.
Eight readings were taken with the level in sequence as follows: 1.585, 1.315, 2.305, 1.225, 1.325, 1.065, 1.815, & 2.325. The level was shifted after the third & sixth readings. The second change point was the benchmark of elevation 175.975. Find the reduced levels of the remaining stations. Use rise and fall method.
∑B.S –∑F.S = ∑Rise – ∑Fall = Last R.L – First R.L
= 4.625 – 5.695= 0.53-1.6 = 175.6- 176.67
= -1.07 = -1.07 = -1.07
Hence checked.
Please Visit My YouTube Channel For Land Surveying Basic Knowledge.
Raja Junaid Iqbal
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]]>The post How to calculate The gradient, run and rise in civil construction appeared first on Surveying & Architects.
]]>In this Article i will calculate the slope, run & rise in the three different drawings as shown below.
Given Data.
Run = 15m.
Rise = 0.5m.
Slope = [run ÷ rise]
= [15m. ÷ 0.5m].
= 30
So, we should provide the gradient or slope of 1: 30
Given Data.
Slope = 1: 100
Rise = 0.5m
Run
= [ slope x rise ]
= [ 100 x 0.5 ]
= Fifty m.
So, we have to provide a ( Fifty m ) run for every 0.5m rise.
Given Data.
Slope or gradient = 1:30
Run = Eleven m.
Rise
= [ run ÷ slope ]
= [ 12m. ÷ 30 ]
= 0.4-m. or 400-mm.
So, for a 12m run, u have to provide the 0.4m. or 400mm. rise.
When we make roads, we cannot provide the rise for the total length as the work should be done in the different phases. In such cases, we have to calculate rise per meter run.
Rise
= [ run ÷ slope]
= [ 200m. ÷ 100 ]
= Two m.
Here,
For 200m run, rise = Two m
For One m. run, rise =?
By cross multiplication,
[One m. × Two m.] = [rise/m. × 200]Rise/m. = [( One m. × Two m. ) ÷200 ]
= 0.01m. or Ten mm.
If you want to provide a gradient for the Twenty m. run of the above-given road,
The formula is
= [ rise/m. × run length ]
= [ 0.01m per m. × Twenty m. ]
= 0.2m. or 200mm.
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]]>The post How To Calculate The Asphalt Quantity For Road Work appeared first on Surveying & Architects.
]]>In this article, I will discuss how to calculate the ( QTY ) Quantity of the Asphalt & its cost for the road construction. The calculation is very easy, u only need some data.
There are many who get confused between the asphalt & bitumen. They think that asphalt & bitumen are the same, but technically they are not same.
Asphalt is the composite material mixture of the aggregates, binder (bitumen) & sand. Aggregates used for the asphalt mix could be crushed rock, sand and gravel, or slags.
Whereas Bitumen is actually the liquid binder that holds the asphalt together. The term bitumen is often mistakenly used to the describe asphalt.
Asphalt is widely used for the constructing & maintaining all types of the roads be it for highways, inner-city & inter-city roads, local roads and car parks, or paving driveways & pavements. I will briefly discuss the difference between asphalt & bitumen in the another article.
Length of the road = L = five km = 5000 m
Width of the road = W = Six m
Thickness of the asphalt = H = 15 cm = 0.15 m
= 5000 x Six x 0.15 = 4500 m^{3}
Here, the density of the asphalt is taken as 2330 kg/m^{3}
Therefore, Quantity of the asphalt = Volume of the asphalt x Density of the asphalt
= 4500 x 2330 = 10485000 kg = 10485 tons.
Suppose the cost of One ton asphalt is 6000 rs.
Cost of the asphalt = 10485 x 6000 = 62910000 rs.
Length of the Curved Road = (π x R x θ)/180 = (3.14 x Ten x 100)/180 = 17.44 m
Volume of the asphalt for curved road = Length x Width x Thickness
= L x W x H = 17.44 x Six x 0.15 = 15.696 m^{3}
= 15.69 x 2330 = 36558 kg = 36.55 tons.
Suppose the cost of One ton asphalt is 6000 rs.
Cost of the asphalt = 36.55 x 6000 = 219300 rs
In case of the area u are calculating has an irregular shape, divide it into the several regularly-shaped sections, then Calculate each of their volume & asphalt requirements using the above method. Finally sum them the up together.
Visit My YouTube Channel For Land Surveying Basic Knowledge.
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]]>The post Types Of Scales In Surveying appeared first on Surveying & Architects.
]]>Since the Surveyed area is the very large, it is never possible to make full size of drawing. For convenience it is generally necessary to draw them to the reduced size, this operation is called ( drawing to scale).
There are 2 types of scales used in Surveying.
1 – Numerical scale.
2 – Graphical scale.
Numerical Scale is also further classified into 2 general types.
1 – Engineer’s Scale.
2 – Fraction Scale.
In an Engineer’s scale, the scale of the map or drawing is the proportion which every distance on the map or drawing bears to corresponding distance on the ground.
Example: One cm = Ten m
This means, One cm on the drawing represents Ten m on the ground, the scale of the map is 10 m to One cm.
The scale is also expressed by means of the vulgar fraction whose numerator is invariable unity. The fraction is called (Representative Fraction) or (RF). It is therefore, the ratio of the map distance to the corresponding ground distance. In forming the representative fraction both numerator & denominator must be reduced to same denomination.
For example, if the scale is Ten m to 1 cm, the RF of the scale is One cm/10x100cm = 1/1000
On the graphical scale, the units of the measurement should always be stated.
Characteristics Of the Good Scale are.
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