How To Estimate the Material for Concrete
In this Article we will discuss How To Estimate the Material for Concrete in which we will find the quantities of materials for concrete such as cement, fine aggregate and aggregates for production of required quantity of concrete of a mix proportions like 1:2:4, 1:1.5: 3, 1:1:2 can be calculated by 2 methods.
The Reinforced Cement Concrete consist of beams, slabs, columns & foundations etc. based on classification of structure. The volume of concrete need for concrete structure can be find by adding the volumes of each structural member or each parts of membrs.
The volume of a rectangular or square member can be find as length x Breadth x height (thickness). proper formla shall be used for different shapes of members.
For the estimation of materials for concrete following materials will be calculate that is given below

W =Mass of water

C = Mass of cement

Fa = Mass of fine aggregates

Ca = Mass of coarse aggregates
The air content has been ignored in the calculation.
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Methods for the estimation of concrete materials
There are two methods for the estimation of materials for concrete.
 1^{st} Method
 2^{nd}
1^{st} Method
There are few steps for the estimation of materials for concrete these steps are given below

Wet Volume of structure

Convert wet volume into dry

Quantity of cement

Quantity of sand

Quantity of coarse aggregate

Quantity of water
To calculate the materials for concrete let’s take an example
Example
A slab having length 10m breadth 5m and thickness or depth 0.125m. The water cement ratio is 0.50 find the materials for concrete M15 (1:2:4) .?
Wet volume of struture
First step is to find the volume of Structure or member
Volume = Length × Breadth × Thickness
Volume = 10 × 5 × 0.125
Volume = 6.25 m^{3}
Convert Wet Volume into Dry
To find the dry volume simply multiply the wet volume with the value that is “1.54” it will convert into dry volume.
Wet volume = 6.25 m^{3}
To convert wet volume into dry volume
Dry volume = 6.25 × 1.54
Dry Volume = 9.625 m^{3}
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Quantity of Cement
To find the quantity of cement the following steps should be used that is given below:
 Sum of concrete ratio or proportion
 Density of cement
We find the quantity of cement for the M15 concrete in which ratio of this concrete is 1:2:4 so “1” is the cement “2” is the sand while “4” is the coarse aggregate.
sum of the concrete ratio = 1+2+4
sum of the concrete ratio = 7
Density of cement is 1440 kg/m^{3}
Cement Quantity = (Cement Part / sum of ratio) × Dry Volume × cement Density
Cement Quantity = (1 / 7) × 9.625 ×1440
Cement Quantity = 1980 kg
To convert kilogram into bags simply divide the kilogram by 50 because 1 bag cement contains 50 kilograms.
Cement Quantity = 1980/50
Cement Quantity = 39.6 say 40 bags
Quantity of Sand
The Quantity of Sand can have calculated as the method for the estimation of the quantity of sand is given below.
We find the quantity of sand for the M15 concrete in which ratio of this concrete is 1:2:4 so “1” is the cement “2” is the sand while “4” is the coarse aggregate.
sum of the concrete ratio = 1+2+4
sum of the concrete ratio = 7
Quantity of Sand = (Sand Part / sum of ratio) × Dry Volume
Quantity of Sand = (2 / 7) × 9.625
Quantity of Sand = 2.75 m^{3}
Quantity of Coarse Aggregate
The estimation of the quantity of coarse aggregate is given below
We find the quantity of coarse aggregate for the M15 concrete in which ratio of this concrete is 1:2:4 so “1” is the cement “2” is the sand while “4” is the coarse aggregate.
sum of the concrete ratio = 1+2+4
sum of the concrete ratio = 7
Quantity of Coarse Aggregate = (coarse aggregate Part / sum of ratio) × Dry Volume
Quantity of Sand = (4 / 7) × 9.625
Quantity of Sand = 5.5 m^{3}
Water Cement Ratio
If water cement is not given by designer, we can assume the water cement ratio According to IS 10262 (2009). Here the value of water cement ratio is 0.50
Required Amount of Water = W/C Ratio X weight of Cement(kg)
Weight of cement = No. of bags x 50
Where 1 bag of cement contain 50 kg cement
Weight of cement = 40 x 50
Weight of cement = 2000
Required Amount of Water = 0.50 X 2000
Required Amount of Water = 1000 liters
2^{nd} Method
 Volume of structure
 Multiply value of table with volume
S.No  Concrete Mix  Cement  Sand(m^{3})  Coarse Aggregate (m^{3})  
cubic meter(m^{3})  Number of Bags  By weight(Kg)  
1  1:6:12  0.08  2.2  110  0.48  0.95 
2  1:5:10  0.09  2.6  130  0.47  0.94 
3  1:4:8  0.12  3.4  170  0.46  0.91 
4  1:3:6  0.15  4.4  220  0.45  0.91 
5  1:2.5:5  0.18  5.2  260  0.45  0.89 
6  1:2:4  0.22  6.4  320  0.44  0.87 
7  1:1.5:3  0.28  8  400  0.42  0.84 
8  1:1:02  0.39  11.2  560  0.39  0.78 
To calculate the materials for concrete let’s take an example
Example
A beam having length 10 m breadth 0.3 m and thickness or depth 0.5m. the water cement ratio is 0.50 find the materials for concrete M15 (1:2:4)?
Quantity of Cement
To find the quantity of cement the following steps should be used that is given below:
 Find Volume of the structural member
 Select value for concrete Mix
 Multiply Selected Value of concrete mix with Volume
Volume = Length × Breadth × Thickness
Volume = 10 × 0.3 × 0.5
Volume = 1.5 m3
We find the quantity of cement for the M15 concrete in which table value for cement is given for Kilogram, cubic meter (m^{3}) and in bags. It means that we can find find the quantity of cement either in kilogram, cubic meter (m^{3}) and also in bags just multiply the value volume with the table values.
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Cement Quantity in Kilogram
Cement can find in kilogram just multiply the table value with volume
Cement Quantity = value of table × Volume
Cement Quantity = 320 × 1.5
Cement Quantity = 480 kg
Cement Quantity in Bags:
Cement can find in bags just multiply the table value with volume
Cement Quantity = value of table × Volume
Cement Quantity = 6.4 × 1.5
Cement Quantity = 9.6 bags
Cement Quantity in volume(m^{3})
Cement can find in volume (m^{3}) just multiply the table value with volume the of structural member.
Cement Quantity = value of table × Volume
Cement Quantity = 0.22 × 1.5
Cement Quantity = 0.33 (m^{3})
To convert kilogram into bags simply divide the kilogram by 50 because 1 bag cement contains 50 kilograms.
Cement Quantity = 1980/50
Cement Quantity = 39.6 say 40 bags
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Quantity of Sand (m^{3})
Sand can find in volume (m^{3}) just multiply the table value with volume the of structural member.
Quantity of Sand = value of table × Volume
Quantity of Sand = 0.44 × 1.5
Quantity of Sand = 0.66 (m^{3})
The quantity of sand can have calculated as the method for the estimation of the quantity of sand is given below:
We find the quantity of sand for the M15 concrete in which ratio of this concrete is 1:2:4 so “1” is the cement “2” is the sand while “4” is the coarse aggregate.
sum of the concrete ratio = 1+2+4
sum of the concrete ratio = 7
Quantity of Sand = (Sand Part / sum of ratio) × Dry Volume
Quantity of Sand = (2 / 7) × 9.625
Quantity of Sand = 2.75 m^{3}
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Quantity of Coarse Aggregate
Coarse aggregate can find in volume (m^{3}) just multiply the table value with volume the of structural member.
Quantity of Coarse Aggregate = value of table × Volume
Quantity of Coarse Aggregate = 0.88 × 1.5
Quantity of Coarse Aggregate = 1.32 (m^{3})
Water Cement Ratio
If water cement is not given by designer, we can assume the water cement ratio According to IS 10262 (2009). Here the value of water cement ratio is 0.50
Required Amount of Water = W/C Ratio X weight of Cement(kg)
Required Amount of Water = 0.50 X 480
Required Amount of Water = 240 liters
Note
If you want to calculate the quantity of material and the dimension is given in foot or inches etc. simply convert these units (Unit Conversion) in meter & then calculate the materials in these methods which I have discuss in this article.
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